The Verbal Morphology of Santiam Kalapuya

The Verbal Morphology of Santiam Kalapuya
Author: Jonathan Banks
Publisher: Northwest Journal of Linguistics
Publication date: 2007
Number of pages: 98

Format / Quality: PDF / excellent
Size: 1,14 MB

Northwest Journal of Linguistics
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2007) Pp. 1–98.
The Verbal Morphology of Santiam Kalapuya∗
Jonathan Banks
University of California, Santa Barbara

This work is a detailed description of the verbal morphology of Santiam
Kalapuya, an extinct Native American language of Oregon. This work is
the first in-depth grammatical analysis of this language. The data used for
this study are texts with translation which were transcribed by Melville
Jacobs in the 1930’s from Mr. John B. Hudson, one of the last speakers.
The analysis presented here focuses on the verbal morphosyntax of
Santiam, including the placement, form, and function of prefixes and
suffixes on the verb stem. Eleven prefix positions and six suffix positions
have been identified, with a total of twenty-one prefixes and fifteen
suffixes. These affixes code a wide range of grammatical features, as, for
example, tense, aspect, modality, grammatical relation, subordination, and
direction. A brief overview of common phonological processes and nonverbal
morphology is also given.
KEYWORDS: Kalapuya; Santiam; Grammar; Verbal Morphology
o. Introduction
1. Language overview
1.1 Phonetic / phonology
1.1.1 Segments according to Jacobs
Stops / Nasals / Fricatives / Affricates / Approximants / Vowels / Dipthongs / Vowel length
1.1.2 Observed phonological processes Nasal assimilation Vowel fronting Affricate weakening
1.2 Morphology / typology overview
1.2.1 Lexical categories
1.2.2 Nominals Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns Demonstratives
Temporal demonstratives Articles
Discourse deictic Possessor prefixes Case marking Spatial adverbial prefix Locative nominalizer
1.2.3 Verb morphology List of prefixes Prefix complexes Prefix ordering
Examples of all position 1 and 2 prefixes
Positions 1 through 5
Positions 5 through 7
Positions 7 through 9
Positions 9 through 11 Compound stems List of suffixes Suffix complexes Suffix ordering
1.2.4 List of clitics
2 Prefixal morphology
2.1 Finite verb marker
2.2 Realis and irrealis
Thematic prefixes
2.3 Past tense realis
2.4 Narrative / habitual irrealis
2.5 Infinitive marker
2.6 Tense, modality and aspect marking
2.6.1 Realis subject marking
Third person marking
2.6.2 Irrealis subject marking
2.7 Plural marking
2.8 Negative morpheme
2.9 Assertivbe
2.10 Adverbial subordination
2.10.1 Adverbial realis subordination
2.10.2 Adverbial irrealis subordination
2.11 Relativization
2.11.1 Contrastive / asserted relative clauses
2.11.2 Backgrounded relative clauses
2.11.3 Stative / active marking
2.12 Complements, purposives, and switch reference
2.12.1 Switch reference
2.12.2 Complements
Same subject complements
Different subject complements
Finite complements
2.12.3 Purposives
Same subject purposives
Different subject purposives
Subject complements
2.13 Spatial prefixes
2.13.1 Cislocative
Spatial function
Aspectual functions
2.13.2 Translocative
Spatial function
Aspectual functions
2.13.3 Proximal
2.13.4 Relative locative
2.13.5 Ablative
3. Suffixal morphology
3.1 Transitive / intransitive suffixes
3..2 Nominalizers
– fin Nominalizer
– fa Nominalizer
3.3 Reflexive
3.4 Inchoative
3.5 Passive
3.6 Causative
3.7 Applicative
Instrumental applicatives
Applicatives and person marking
Discourse influence
Diachronic source?
3.8 Reciprocal
3.9 Collective
3.10 Distributive
3.11 Durative-locative
3.12 Durative
3.13 Object marking
3.13.1 First and second person direct objects
First person singular direct object
Second person singular direct object
First person plural direct object
Second person plural direct object
3.13.2 First and second person indirect objects
3.13.3 Third person direct objects
3.13.4 Third person indirect objects


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