Author: Mary A. Haas
Publisher: American Council of Learned Societies
Publication date: 1955
Number of pages: 382
Format: PDF / ERIC – readable
Size: 4,75 MB
American Council of Learned Societies
Program in Oriental Languages
Publications Series A – Texts – Number 2
Mary A. Haas
American Council of Learned Societies
[Available from] Spoken Language Services, Ithaca, N.Y.
This dictionary is intended to serve an interim need as a short dictionary of the Thai language. It contains vocabulary entries derived from the “Thai Reader” and a selection of words and examples from other sources, including (1) the words and expressions found in “Spoken Thai” (Haas and Subhanka, Henry Holt and Co.) and (2) McFarland’s list of the “One Thousand Common Words Most Used” (McFarland, “Thai-English Dictionary,” Stanford University Press). Thai words are listed in the traditional Indic system requiring memorization of the Thai alphabet. Vocalic symbols and tonal markers follow traditional notation. Entries are also Romanized for the student. A list of consonants is included. For the companion documents, see FL 004 861 and FL 004 862. (RL)
The original plans for the THAI VOCABULARY called for it to contain the vocabulary items found in the THAI READER (American Council of Learned Societies, 1954). Recognition of the lack of any short dictionary designed expressly for the use of English-speaking students of the Thai language, however, made it appear desirable to expand the contents of the vocabulary to include other items as well. The resultant work presented here is therefore intended to serve an interim need for a short student’s dictionary of Thai. It contains not only the vocabulary and illustrative examples from the Reader but also a careful selection of words and examples from other lists as well. Important additional sources of material are (1) the words and expressions found in SPOKEN THAI (Haas and Subhanka, Henry Holt and Co.), and (2) McFarland’s list of the “One Thousand Common Words Most Used” (McFarland, THAI-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, Stanford University Press).
The most useful student’s dictionary presently available if Manich’s THAI-ENGLISH DICTIONARY (3rd rev. ed., Bangkok, 1949, 692 pp.). That dictionary, however, is designed to be used by Thai-speaking students of English and therefore contains only the traditional Thai spelling followed by English glosses. The present work, though it cannot compete with Manich’s work in number of lexemes presented, contains a number of special features designed to be of aid to the English-speaking student of Thai. These are as follows:
(1) The traditional Thai spelling of each word and expression is followed by a phonetic transcription. The transcription used is that found in SPOKEN THAI except that long vowels are written by doubling, e.g. /aa/ instead of /a./. An additional phonetic refinement is also shown. Syllables containing a short vowel not closed by a consonant have two pronunciations: (1) a spelling or slow speed pronunciation in which the short vowel has a low tone or a high tone depending on the class of the consonant which precedes it, and (2) a normal rapid speed pronunciation in which both low- and high-toned short vowels are pronounced on a middle tone. Both of these pronunciations are shown in this book.
(2) The phonetic transcription is followed by an abbreviation describing the word-.class, viz., N, noun; Prn., pronoun; Clf., classifier; Num., numeral; V, verb; Sec. V. secondary verb; Adv.-aux., adverb-auxiliary; Prep., preposition; Conj., conjunction; Part., particle; Interj., interjection.
(3) A noun is followed by its appropriate classifier or classifiers shown in parentheses.
(4) The English gloss is provided immediately below the phonetic transcription. Explanations and examples of special usages are provided where necesdsary.
(5) Highly productive words are shown with important derivatives.
(6) Words characteristic of formal or elegant speech are distinguished from those of informal or common speech. Words used in speaking to or about royalty are also to be marked.
(7) Common abbreviations are explained.
(8) Variant Thai spellings of the last decade are shown. When a particular spelling is marked as “preferred”, it is taken from the official Thai-Thai Dictionary, Bangkok, 1950, prepared by the Thai Ministry of Education.
(9) Variant pronunciations are described.
(10) Place names and personal names are included, but only those which occur in the Reader
The Thai system of writing is a derivative of the Devanagari system and the sequence of arrangement for the consonants is basically the same as in the Indic system (for example, that used for Sanskrit). This sequence constitutes the alphabetical order used in standard Thai dictionaries and must be memorized for an efficient use of such dictionaries. The present Vocabulary lists the Thai words in this traditional order; see List of Consonants, p. xii. Although vocalic symbols and tonal markers are of secondary importance, they too follow a fixed sequence of arrangement as is shown on pp. xii-xiv.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to the American Council of Learned Societies for support in the production of the THAI READER and the THAI VOCABULARY. I am also indebted to the Institute of East Asiatic Studies, University of California, for the opportunity to refer to the files of the Thai Dictionary Project in connection with the preparation of the materials contained in the Vocabulary.
Mary R. Haas
University of California, Berkeley
LIST OF THAI CONSONANTS
DICTIONARY ORDER OF SIMPLE AND COMPLEX VOWEL OR VOWEL + CONSONANT SYMBOLS
In arranging the ORDER OF WORDS in a Thai dictionary CONSONANTS ALWAYS TAKE PRECEDENCE OVER VOWELS. This applies even to symbols which are sometimes read as consonants, sometimes as vowels. The chart on this and the preceding page shows the dictionary order of all common symbols having a vowel or vowel + consonant reading. Any intervening initial or final consonant symbols will take their proper alphabetical order in accordance with the arrangement in the LIST OF THAI CONSONANTS.
SOME ADDITIONAL SYMBOLS USED IN THAI
Remarks: To be used with Thai Reader (already uploaded)